10ft w x 5 ft d x 7ft h shed plans
The Midland Railway page is something of a problem as it was only thinly addressed in Steam Locomotive Development where it was observed that the Railway was centred on Derby from which routes radiated to the south west, north west, to the Scottish Border, to the east and to London. At that time the only book which appeared to be relevant was Hamilton Ellis’ Midland Railway . Since then there has been a major expansion of the literature mainly due to Summerson, Hunt and former enginemen Essery, the latter frequently aided by the late David Jenkinson. Like the locomotives this literature has a certain not-unattractive sameness and has been well-done. With the exception of the Settle & Carlisle line the infrastructure appears to have been poor and imposed severe limitations on locomotive development. There is a further problem in that late Midland Railway locomotive development, like that on the Great Northern Railway under Gresley, merged into that of the post-grouping company: hence all Fowler “development” will be considered under Fowler..
To KPJ the locomotives have always seemed unexciting, but he would have loved to have seen the Midland singles in their glorious red. Most of the locomotives were small: 0-6-0s and 2-4-0s and 0-6-0Ts and 0-4-4Ts. Later there were 4-4-0s, including the compounds. Boiler sizes grew gradually and sometimes reboilering involved the fitment of a smaller type. There was a brief revolution under Deeley, but that was quickly quelled. Derby’s sole major contribution to locomotive history was standardization. Derby was a very long distance from Swindon or Doncaster or Darlington; and Ashford showed what could be done with small 4-4-0s in a way that never reached Derby, not even after the Grouping.
MR engine summary 1844-1922 (Summerson 1)
|2-4-0 1856-75||includes 2 ‘rebuilt’ 1873/4 to 156 class from large 70 & 150 classes|
|0-6-0WT large||‘rebuilt’ from various 0-6-0|
|0-6-0WT small||‘rebuilt’ from 2-2-2s|
|0-6-0 1844-9||includes 4 delivered January 1850|
|0-6-0 inside frames 1851/57|
|0-6-0 straight framed double frames|
|0-6-0 480 class double frames|
|0-6-0 700 class double frames|
|Severn & Wye 1895|
|4-4-0||not rebuilt with larger boilers|
|4-4-0||rebuilt with larger boilers.|
|4-4-0 Belpaire||Includes modified engines by Deeley|
|0-6-0 large||Includes modified engines by Deeley|
|0-4-0T||includes 5 ‘rebuilds’ of Johnson 0-4-0STs|
|4-4-0 483 class||15 more completed by LMS|
|Makers||Locomotive Nos||Year built||Cost each|
|Kitson||1142-61, 381-5, 400-404||1875-6||£2,920|
These had 17½in diameter x 26in stroke cylinders, and 4ft 10in diameter driving wheels on a standard wheelbase of 8ft + 8ft 6in. The boiler carried a heating surface of 1,233ft 2 and was pressed to 140psi except for Nos 1192-1221 with a total heating surface of 1,223ft 2 and the tender was the Johnson pattern 2,350gal type holding 4 tons of coal. Working weights totalled 34 tons 3cwt for the engine and 28 tons 19cwt for the tender (full).
A further twenty locomotives were delivered by Dübs in 1878, class H, Nos 1357-76, generally similar to the previous lots, but with larger 5ft 2½in diameter driving wheels, and in 1880 Derby Works turned out their first Johnson goods tender locomotive of this type to O/240, this being No 1452 in March, followed by Nos. 1453-61 the same year. These had the same size driving wheels and cylinders as the Dübs engines, and the B boiler carried 1,223ft 2 of heating surface. A 2,250gal tender was fitted and weights of a Dübs locomotive in working order were: engine 37 tons 14cwt, tender 29 tons 12cwt. The Dübs locomotives cost £2,274 each and the Derby product £1,990. 9s 6d, a considerable saving. Although contractor-built locomotives were excluded by Radford, he did briefly mention some. From Stephensons in 1880-81 a further batch of class H goods locomotives, Nos 1432-51, 1462-71, appeared followed in 1882-4 by a further fifty, Nos 1582-1631, from Beyer Peacock at unit costs of £2,234 and £2,460 respectively.
Radford (page 91 et seq ) tabulated “the ever increasing numbers of Johnson 0-6-0 goods tender engines” ordered, notably a new range of 4ft 10½in diameter driving wheel locomotives, with slightly larger 18in diameter cylinders, began with No 1698 in February 1885, the range is tabulated below:
These were fitted with B class boilers having one slight variation in heating surface, but all set at 140psi. The first 10 had boilers carrying 1,142ft 2 of heating surface and the remainder had 1,260ft 2 . Many of these were fitted from 1903 onwards with H class boilers carrying 1,404ft 2 of heating surface and set at 175psi, and a few with H1 Class boilers carrying fewer tubes, 242 of 1¾in diameter instead of 258 on the ordinary H class. Firebox heating surface was 118.75ft 2 against 118.5 ft 2 and there was a shared grate area of 21.1ft 2 and later still many of this (and later classes too) were also rebuilt, from 1926, with the Belpaire G6 type boiler set at 140psi or 160psi. These carried 196 l¾in diameter tubes giving 977.5ft 2 of heating surface which, with the firebox (103ft 2 ), gave a total of 1,080.5ft 2 with a grate area of 17 .5ft 2 . These figures are computed as agreed by the Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers in November, 1914.
Eleven of these were also rebuilt, commencing in 1920, with G7 Belpaire type boilers as were large numbers of the later builds of goods engines. This boiler was larger altogether, carrying 254 tubes of l¾in diameter giving 1,265.5ft 2 heating surface + firebox 122.75ft 2 totalling 1,388.25ft 2 heating surface. Grate area was 21.1ft 2 . The principal difference between the G7 and G6 was the larger barrel diameter, 4ft 8in against 4ft lin, length and depth of firebox and the position of the dome in relation to the tubeplate at the smokeboxend together with an increase in the length of firebox from 6ft to 7ft.
Essery, Terry . How it was done. Part 3. Primary training on bank pilots. LMS Journal , (14). 4-17.
Class 3F 0-6-0 locomotives were used as banking engines between Washwood Heath and Kings Heath on the steeply graded Camp Hill line.. 4F locomotives were sometimes used, but their superheated boilers were less suitable for banking work. Firemen were introduced to the Hydrostatic Displacement Lubricators fitted to the 3F class. Careful management of the fire was essential to ensure that the locomotives did not blow off at the top of the bank, but sufficient fire was needed if banking was required beyond Kings Heath. Care had to be taken to avoid priming. It is noted that the draughting of the 3F class was excellent and firemen rapidly learned the correct technique for firing into a very hot fire.
Hunt, David, Essery, Bob and James, Fred . Midland engines No. 4 The ‘700’ class double-frame goods engines . Didcot: Wild Swan, 200?.
Michael Rutherford ( Backtrac k, 2003, 17 , 235) was effusive: “Excellent. the more you buy the more will be made available”.
Hunt, David, Essery, Bob and James, Fred . Midland engines No. 2 The class 3 Belpaire goods engines . Didcot: Wild Swan, 200?.
Hunt, David. Further information on Midland engines. Midland Record (19), 38-42.
Corrections to Number 4 and further illus. for No. 4
On page 106 Radford noted that in 1888 Johnson brought out the first of a new range of six-coupled goods engines having 5ft 2½in diameter driving wheels and 18in x 26in cylinders. This was No 1798 which emerged in September of that year built to O/713, and she was followed by the remainder of the order, Nos 1799-1807, the last being completed in November. These engines had second-hand 2,750gal tenders off earlier passenger engines, which received the new tenders built to O/714 intended for these goods engines. This class were fitted with the standard B class boiler, having a total heating surface of 1,260sq ft, five being later rebuilt with H class boilers, four later had G7 class boilers and new frames and five, Nos 1798, 1803-5 and 1807, had a G6 class boiler put on the old frames.
Only one other order for this type was built at Derby up to the turn of the century, and this was O/1353 fulfilled in 1894-5, for locomotives Nos 361-70. These had the same basic dimensions, with B boilers of 1,252sq ft heating surface and 150psi. Four were later rebuilt with H or HX boilers and six with G7 boilers. One No 367, was rebuilt with a G6 boiler. In addition 555 of this class were built by outside contractors between 1890 and 1902 .
On page 118 Radford recorded that the last engines of Johnson design built for the Midland during his turn of office were a new form of his standard 0-6-0 goods tender engine, the first of which, No 2736, emerged from the Derby shops in January, 1903. These had larger H class boilers set at 175psi and with a total heating surface of 1,428sq ft, of which the 258 tubes of l7/8in diameter provided 1,303sq ft and the firebox 12 5sq ft, the grate area being 21.1 sq ft.
The boiler barrel was 10ft 51/16in long and 4ft 8in outside diameter and the distance between tube plates 10ft 105/8in. The firebox was 7ft long x 4ft ½in wide outside. These boilers had twin Ramsbottom type safety valves plus a lock-up safety valve in front situated over the firebox enclosed in an oval casing, and the cab side sheets were extended for a greater distance beyond the cab front plate than heretofore, giving them a new and distinctive appearance. With 5ft 3in diameter driving wheels on a standard 16ft 6in wheelbase and 18in diameter x 26in stroke inside cylinders with slide valves between operated by Stephensons valve gear engine weights in working order were: leading 13 tons 15cwt 2qtr, driving 16 tons 18cwt, trailing 13 tons 2cwt 3qtr, totalling 43 tons 16cwt lqtr. Total wheelbase was 38ft 9¼in and length over buffers 50ft 9½in.
The first order for these, O/2328, for engines 2736-40 and 240-44 was fulfilled between January and May, 1903, and a further order O/2530 for ten further engines of this design, Nos 245-54, but having larger 18½in x 26in cylinders, was also delivered by the Derby shops the same year, these being built between July and December. All subsequent engines of this type had the larger size of cylinders until the introduction of the larger Class 4 freight engines in 1911.
Tuplin included a table which gives a clear indication of the growth in power in the 4-4-0 type
|Building dates||Grate Area (ft 2 )||Approx.number built||Power class||Running Nos.|
The slim boiler 4-4-0s: first series 1876-7
Required for the Settle & Carlisle line: slim boiler was 4ft 1in in diameter. The 1312 class had 6ft 6in driving wheels whilst the 1327 class had 7ft driving wheels
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 2
1312 class : 1876-7
Ahrons described these as the 1282 class fitted with a leading bogie. Nos. 1312 to 1321, had 6ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and 17½ in. by 26 in. cylinders. Radford noted that they were built by Kitsons. These engines were stationed at Liverpool, and originally ran between that city and Derby. For many years they were employed on the Midland expresses between Liverpool (Exchange) and Blackburn over the L&YR. After the 1907 renumbering they became 300 to 309. During the 1880s they often worked theatrical specials from Liverpool over the MSLR through to Leeds and Bradford via Godley Junction and Barnsley, but throughout their existence they were not familiar engines on the Midland, as they have passed “a somewhat secluded and retired life” in the Cheshire Lines corner of the system. Radford noted that the new design of B class boiler had a total heating surface of 1,223 ft 2 . The firegrate was standard on all classes of passenger tender engines at 17.5ft 2 until 1887. The Kitsons cost £2,750 each.
1327 class: 1877-9.
Twenty 7 ft. 4-4-0s Nos. 1327 to 1346 were constructed by Dübs in 1877. Ahrons noted that these, were the first Midland engines to have 18 in. by 26 in. cylinders, with the exception of a few of the rebuilt 800 class. The bogie wheels were 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The 1327 class had very large boilers for that period, with a total heating surface of 1313 ft 2 , (Radford suggests a lower figure) of which the firebox supplied 110 ft 2 . The total weight was slightly over 42 tons in working order. Of these engines Nos. 1327 to 1340 were fitted with Smith’s simple vacuum brake, and used on Manchester expresses between Leicester and London and Leicester and Manchester. In 1882 they were all stationed at Cornbrook (Manchester), and remained there for many years, with the exception of 1336 to 1339, which went later to Birmingham, and ran for a long time both on the Bristol and the Leeds trains from that place. 1341 to 1346 started at Leeds in 1877 on the Leicester and Birmingham expresses, and after a number of years also found their way to Manchester. The Dübs locomotives cost £2,690 each: £2,495 for the later build. According to Radford they were fitted with Roscoe lubricators..
The Slim Boiler 4-4-0s III D & E Boiler Engines 1892-1901
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 4
Fowler: 483 > Hunt, David, Essery, Bob and James, Fred . Midland engines No. 3 the class 2 superheated 4-4-0s (‘483’ class rebuild) . Didcot: Wild Swan, 2001.
Reviewed by Michael Rutherford in Backtrack , 2001, 15 , 426: well received but criticises lack of full references. Further info in Midland Record Issue 14. One of the problems of the Hunt work is that he has tended to reclassify the types yet again.
According to Radford Johnson’s passenger engines were being turned out of the works in “larger numbers”, along with the other types, and following the first two batches of 4-4-0 passenger tender engines built by Messrs Kitson & Dü:bs , Derby shops commenced building this type in 1882, No 1562, turned out in September of that year being the first of order 370 for 10 locomotives, to be followed over the years by many more, the whole series numbering 265, although there were many variations which created sub-divisions within the class.
Radford (page 93) tabulated the first eight orders for 4-4-0s (table has been extended):
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 3 also identifies some of these designs and designated them as classes as per final column . He also refers to a 1667 class of ten 4-4-0s with 7ft driving wheels of 1884.
|Order||Locomotive Nos||Year built||driving wheel diam.||total heating surface||working pressure||tender:
|O/370||1562-71||1882||6ft 8½in||1,142ft 2||140psi||2,950/2½|
|O/400||1572-81||1882-3||6ft 8½in||1,142ft 2||140psi||2,950/2½|
|O/430||1657-66||1883||6ft 8½in||1,142ft 2||140psi||2,950/2½|
|O/554||1738-47||1885-6||7ft 0½in||1,261ft 2||160psi||3,250/3|
|O/615||1748-57||1886||7ft 0½in||1,261ft 2||160psi||3,250/3|
|O/678||1808-17||1888||6ft 6in||1,261ft 2||160psi||3,250/3|
|O/734||1818-22||1888||6ft 6in||1,261ft 2||160psi||3,250/3|
|O/920||80-87, 11, 14||1891||6ft 6in||1,261ft 2||160psi||3,250/3|
|Order No||Running Nos.||Year Built||Driving wheel||Valves||Firebox length||Grate area (ft 2 )|
|O/1235||184-93||1894||6ft 6in||slide||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1276||194-9, 161-4||1894||6ft 6in||slide||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1410||230-9||1895||6ft 6in||slide||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1458||156-60||1896||7ft 0in||piston||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1460||*1667, 1668, 1672, 1675, 1676||1896-7||7ft 0in||piston||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1597||150, 153-5, 204-9||1897||7ft 0in||piston||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1635||60-66, 93, 138-9||1898||7ft 0½in||piston||7ft 0in||21.3|
|O/1707||*1669, 1671||1898||7ft 0in||piston||6ft 6in||19.5|
|O/1834||67-9, 151-2, 165-9||1899||7ft 0½in||piston||7ft 0in||21.3|
|O/2041||805-9, 2636-40||1901||7ft 0½in||piston||7ft 0in||21.3|
|O/2072||*1670, 1673, 1674||1901||7ft 0in||piston||6ft 6in||19.5|
*Rebuilds of original Joy’s valve gear engines built to O/444 but considered to be new engines.
All the engines to the first three orders together with Sharp Stewart Nos 2203-17 (built for the new Dore & Chinley line) were later rebuilt with H class boilers and thirty were rebuilt to O/4476 and O/5664 with G7 class superheated boiler and new 7ft 0½n diameter driving wheels between 1914 and 1923. Two, Nos 162 and 232 were fitted with G7 saturated boilers in 1910.
These engines as built were very similar to the earlier orders, having a bigger distance between driving centres of either 9ft or 9ft’ 6in, (to enable a longer firebox to be used), the bogie with wheels at 6ft centres being placed either 10ft 0½n or 10ft 2½in at its centre from the leading driver. The bogie wheels on the first three orders were 3ft 3in diameter, but, this was raised to 3ft 6in on the engines having 7ft and 7ft 0½in driving wheels.
Those with the longer driving centres and bigger distances to bogie centre were O/1635 onwards, except for the rebuilt Joy’s valve-gear engines, reconstructed to O/2072. All these engines had the short Johnson smokebox and the combined splasher with the access hole at footplate level.
So far as the original boilers were concerned, those built to O/1458 for example had a boiler carrying 242 tubes of 15/8in external diameter and 2 tubes of l½in od providing a heating surface of 1,123.6sq ft and with the firebox of 117sq ft this made a total of 1,240.6sq ft. The grate area was 19.678sq ft. As a comparison the smallest 4-4-0s with 6ft 6in driving wheels carried somewhat less heating surface, of which the 240 tapered tubes (111/16in od at smokebox end and 15/8in od at the firebox end) gave 1,106.lsq ft and with the same ample size of firebox, the total was 1,223.ISq ft. Grate area was the same. The boilers on both types were pitched 7ft 4in from rail and the height to the top of the chimney was 12ft 11½tin.
These engines were allocated as follows: Nos 184-99 to Carlisle, 161-4 Leicester, 230-35 Leeds, 236-9 Hellifield, 156-60 and certain of 0/1460 went to Nottingham as did 151 and 152, the rest going to Derby and Kentish Town. Nos 60-69, 150 and 153-5 went to Leicester, 204 to Birmingham and the remainder of that order to Manchester. Derby had Nos 93, 138, and 139, and apart from the rebuilds the remainder, to 0/2041, went to Carlisle (805-9) and Leeds (2636-40).
700 class (Belpaires) : 1900-
Radford 114 et seq calls these the 700 class (a term already used for Kirtley 0-6-0s) or the Belpaires. In September 1900, the first of Johnson’s “large” two-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger locomotives emerged from the Derby Works. These were the 700 class as they later became known although they were colloquially referred to as the “Belpaires”. The initial order (O/1869) was for ten locomotives, Nos 2606-10 and 800-804, turned out between September 1900 and June 1901. They were produced for the Settle-Carlisle line to reduce double-heading. The driving wheels were 6ft 9in diameter at 9ft 6in centres and the 3ft 6½in diameter bogie wheels at 6ft centres, were placed 10ft 2½in in front of the leading driver. The inside cylinders were 19½in x 26in and had piston valves. For the first time Johnson used a Belpaire GX type boiler set at 175psi, and pitched 8ft 3in from rail. This carried a total heating surface of 1,519ft 2 of which the 272 tubes of 1¾ in diameter provided 1,374ft 2 and the firebox 14ft 2 . The grate area was 25ft 2 . They were provided with “water-cart” tenders of the twin four-wheeled bogie type of 4,000gal water capacity and 3½tons of coal, the working weights being as follows: leading bogie 17 tons 5cwt 2qtr, driving 18 tons 5cwt 2qtr, trailing 16 tons 6cwt 2qtr, totalling 51 tons 17cwt 2qtr. The tender weighed 52 tons 7cwt Iqtr.
The appearance of these engines was further altered by the use of a closed round-topped dome and twin Ramsbottom safety valves enclosed in an oval canister-shaped housing over the firebox. A lock-up safety valve was added on later engines. The bogies of these engines had a somewhat unusual compensated suspension, but this was not repeated on the next order. As new this first batch of ten were allocated to Leeds and Manchester, Robert Weatherburn had pressed Johnson to introduce the Belpaire boiler on the Midland in 1875, when he took up. an appointment with the company, having observed the satisfactory outcome of the application of this type of firebox to boilers of engines built by Messrs Kitson & Co for the German Government and used on the Alsace and Lorraine Railways at Metz. However it was not until after Pollitt had introduced the Belpaire boiler on the Great Central line that Johnson permitted their use on the Midland. His reply to Weatherburn on being reminded that the Midland could have been the first to use them had his advice been taken, was “Yes, I remember Weatherburn, but I like to be sure and on the safe side before taking so important a step”, a remark so typical of the man.
The next two orders for this type followed in 1902, with a further two orders in 1903, the last year of Johnsons reign, as listed below (Radford p. 115):
|Order No||Locomotive Nos||Year|
On these later orders the bogie wheels were reduced to 3ft 3½in diameter and had four point suspension, the distance from the leading driver to the centre of the bogie being increased to l0ft 8½in and from the centre bogie to front buffer 7ft 11in as against 6ft 10in on the first order. This was to accommodate the longer boiler barrel of the new boiler.
Even larger, 4,500gal double-bogie tenders were fitted to those orders up to the fifth engine of O/2458, while the remainder had 4,100gal tenders of the same type. The length over buffers for all those listed was 59ft 6¼in with a total wheelbase of 47ft 41/8in, working weights being 53 tons 4cwt for the engine and 52 tons I 2cwt 3qtr for tenders of 4,500gal capacity and 47 tons 14cwt Iqtr for those of 4,100gal capacity. All the later batch had the new type G8 boiler with Belpaire firebox, a 6in longer barrel, and having a total heating surface of 1,528 sq ft of which the 262 tubes of 1¾in diameter gave 1,383sq ft and the firebox 145sq ft.
The grate area remained at 25sq ft. All but three of these locomotives later had boilers with superheaters fitted. These engines were allocated to Kentish Town, Nottingham, Leeds and Manchester, and were reserved for the heavier long-distance-express passenger trains.
Engineer , 1904, 25 March
Loco. Mag. , 1903, 3 Dec.
Engineer , 1906, 9 March
The first Midland compound. Rly Mag., 1959, 105 , 652..
Hall, Stanley . Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history . 2006.
Hall regards Webb’s compounds as a millstone, but regards the Johnson/Smith Midland compounds as a milestone. Nevertheless W.M. Smith was not as Hall states on page 11 “an old Derby man” (it was his son who was at Derby) and the zenith of Smith’s work was achieved on the NER with locomotives which were presumably superior to those developed at Derby. Sadly, although Hall hints at the validity of the trials conducted by the LMS, he shelters behind Bond’s comments made in A lifetime of locomotives where he stated that the tests “established beyond question the superiority of the compounds over all other contenders”. .
Hunt, David. The Johnson compounds. Midland Record (10), 40-52.
Includes a folding general arrangement drawing.
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 12. The Midland compounds.
Indicative of high regard for class by Nock
Nock, O.S. The Midland compounds . 1964.
Radford, J.B. Derby Works and Midland locomotives.
Radford covers the compounds in depth on pp. 116-18. He judged them to be “perhaps the most famous of all” Johnson’s designs, but added that when introduced on 26 November 1901 it was “immediately christened an “ugly brute” by the running department staff at Derby.” The introduction of compounds to the Midland was not done without a great deal of soul searching by Johnson. He was not, as we have noted before, a man to jump on the band wagon of every new development, but waited patiently on the bye-lines until he felt that the time was ripe, and with his length of experience in all branches of engineering his was the almost perfect mechanical judgement. Curtain raiser to the Midland compound had been the rebuilding by W. M. Smith, to his own compounding system, of one of William Worsdell’s two-cylinder compounds on the North Eastern Railway. Smiths system involved one high-pressure cylinder placed between the frames and two low pressure cylinders placed outside. This could be worked on starting as a three-cylindered simple engine but by the use of non-return valves, and a spring loaded regulating valve, the cylinders could be made to work compound, steam from the high pressure cylinder being utilised again in the low pressure cylinders.
The first order for compounds was O/2109 and the numbers of the engines were 2631-5 the first two being officially dated January, 1902 although both were turned out before the end of 1901. The remainder were turned out in July, September and November, 1903. The first two had one inside high-pressure cylinder 19in diameter and 26in of stroke and two outside low-pressure cylinders 21in diameter and 26in stroke, and the valves were operated by three sets of Stephenson’s link motion operating a piston valve for the inside cylinder and slide valves for the outside cylinders. Separate reversing gear was provided for high- and low-pressure systems, and the leading coupled axle was driven from all three cylinders, the inside crank being set at 135deg to the outside cranks 90 deg. A reinforcing valve was fitted on the side of the smokebox by means of which high-pressure steam could be admitted to the low-pressure cylinders to provide extra power such as when starting, this valve being operated by the driver. The driving wheels were 7ft diameter set at 9ft 6in centres and the bogie wheels 3ft 6½in diameter at 6ft 6in centres, the centre of the bogie being 11ft 6in in front of the leading coupled axle. The boiler of 2631 was a G8½in type with Belpaire firebox, introduced specially for the compounds, having a total heating surface of 1,598sq ft of which the 261 tubes of 1¾in diameter provided 1,448sq ft and the firebox 150sq ft. Grate area was 26sq ft and the boiler was pitched 8ft 6in above rail level, and set to work at 195psi maximum pressure, the barrel being 11ft 7in long, and 4ft 8in minimum diameter. The tender held 5 tons of coal and 4,500gal of water and was of the double bogie type weighing 52 tons 12cwt 3qtr in working order, whilst the engine weighed 59 tons 10cwt 1qtr divided as follows: bogie 20 tons 12cwt 3qtr, driving 19 tons 11cwt 2qtr, trailing 19 tons 6cwt. There was some slight variation in weights between the first five engines, those given applying to the first engine only. No 2632 was identical except that the boiler carried Serf (Serve) corrugated boiler tubes, 2¾in outside diameter with internal ribbing, and the heating surface was tubes 1,56g.8sq ft + firebox 150sq ft totalling 1,719.8sqft.
The last three of the first order, built in 1903, differed somewhat from Nos 2631-2 in that they had only one set of reversing gear operating all three sets of valve gear, and the running plate was not raised over the cylinders as with the originals, and they were somewhat lighter, the engine weighing 58 tons 9cwt in working order. No 2635 was also fitted with Serf tubes but these were replaced by the orthodox type, as were those on 2632, in 1904. Of these early compounds the first two were put to work on the line north of Leeds up to Carlisle, and the other three in the London area.
Radford ended by commending two excellent books: The Midland Compounds by D.F. Tee and a fuller account The Midland Compounds by O.S. Nock.
Reynolds, W.J. The Midland compounds. Railways , 1949, 10 , 29-30. illus.
van Riemsdijk, J.T. Compound locomotives: an International survey . Penryn: Atlantic Press, 1994. 140pp.
Included in chapter on three-cylinder compounds: book based mainly on three part paper presented to Newcomen Society: Part 1 see Volume 43 page 1 et seq .
Selby, F.W. Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs , 1930, 20 , 287-316. Disc.: 317-24; 693-703. + 12 folding plates. 6 illus., 12 diagrs., 3 tables. (Paper No.257).
Tee, D.F. The Midland compounds . RCTS, 1962.
Obituary of David Tee (born Coventry, 1928) Midland Record (16), 13.
Tomkins, R.M. The Midland Railway 4-4-0 three-cylinder compound locomotives and later developments. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc ., 1954, 30 , 190-9; 354. 2 illus. (line drawings : s. el.), 2 tables.
Tuplin, W.A. The Midland compounds. Railways , 1952, 13 , 34-6+. 2 illus., table.
A descriptive, rather than critical, article.
“Voyageur” , pseud. The last of the Midland compounds. Trains ill ., 1961, 14 , 674-7. 5 illus.
Restoring No. 1000. Rly Mag., 1959, 105 , 652.
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 4 2-4-0s of the decorated period.
1070 class : 1874-6 Kirtley/Johnson
30 locomotives built with 6ft 2½ driving wheels. The first passenger design built under Johnson was a developed from Kirtley’s 890 class, and had inside frames, 6ft 2in diameter driving wheels and 17in x 24in cylinders. Sharp Stewart built 20 engines: Nos 1070-89. and ten were built at Derby to O/97 , Nos 1, 9, 10, 13, 70, 71, 73, 74, 96 and 146. The Sharp engines carried a Kirtley 140psi boiler with a total heating surface of 1,063ft 2 , whilst the Derby engines had a Johnson P-class boiler with an increased heating surface of 1,206ft 2 . The leading inside axleboxes were Cartazzi pattern. Reversing was by screw and handle. The Derby engines were allocated mainly to Skipton until replaced by new engines, when they moved to Nottingham, with No 96 going to Kentish Town. All of these were Westinghouse air brake fitted. The Sharp Stewart-built engines are often considered to be the last passenger engines built to Kirtley’s designs, although they are classified along with the Derby locomotives which are credited to Johnson. One of the Derby engines, No 96, was the last Midland 2-4-0 engine running, not being withdrawn until 28 October 1950, having been renumbered 155 in 1907, and 20155 in 1937, in between this being named Engineer South Wales from 1933 to 1936. In all she ran a total of 1,425,151 miles in service.
The class as a whole were renumbered 127-56 in order of building in 1907. At boiler changes P boilers with different heating surfaces were put on Nos I070-89 and all but five of the class were later rebuilt with 160psi B-type boilers. Nos 13, 73, 96 and 146, were rebuilt with Belpaire G6 boilers between 1924 and 1927. All had their cylinders enlarged to 18in diameter between 1887 and 1902. When built these engines were for use on the new Settle-Carlisle line which had been opened for goods traffic on 2 August 1875, and was due to be opened for through passenger-trains from St Pancras to Glasgow and Edinburgh on 1 May 1876.
Larger versions of this class emerged from the Derby Works with 17½in x 26in cylinders. These were built to O/107 and were Nos 50-4 with 6ft 6in driving wheels and 55-9 with 6ft 8in driving wheels, the first one in August 1876?. All had Johnson’s P boiler with total heating surface 1,206ft 2 and at the standard working pressure of 140psi. The leading axleboxes were as for O/97; screw reverse and Furness lubricators were fitted.
2-4-0s were also supplied by outside firms: Dübs met two orders for 6ft 6in 2-4-0s in 1876, with 17½in x 26in cylinders, running Nos 1282-1301 and 1302-11 in 1876. Working weights were: engine 38 tons 8cwt 3qtr and tender 32 tons. Nos. 1282-1301 were fitted with Smith’s simple vacuum brake for working London-Manchester services, and 1302-11 had Westinghouse brakes for working the expresses from St Pancras to Scotland. Kitsons supplied the very similar 4-4-0s.
In 1877 ten further 2-4-0s, with 7ft driving wheels: running Nos 1347-56, were built at Derby, for use on the fastest main line passenger trains, being allocated to Skipton (1347-50) and Saltley (1351-6). The first two of these engines had Westinghouse brake equipment, and the class was built to O/179. The cylinders were 17½in x 26in, but all were later enlarged to 18in diameter. The boiler was the P type. The cost of each locomotive was £1,572. The class were renumbered 1347A-56A and again 101-10 in 1879, becoming 197-206 in 1907. The first was withdrawn in April, 1924 and the last (1354) in October, 1941. All were later rebuilt with B class boilers, and three with G6 Belpaire boilers.
The final 2-4-0 orders are tabulated below:
|Year||Order||Running Nos.||Cylinders||Coupled wheels||Cost (unit)|
|1879||O/232||1400-1409||18 x 26in||6ft 8½in||£2,205|
|1880||O/283||111-115||17½ x 26in||6ft 6½in|
|1880||O/279||1472-81||18 x 26in||6ft 8½in||£2,264|
|1880||O/273||1482-91||18 x 26in||6ft 8½in||£2,337|
|1881||like O/232 (Neilson)||1502-31||18 x 26in||6ft 9in||£2,445|
|1881||O/275||1492-1501||18 x 26in||7ft 0½in||£2,166|
All carried the same P boiler of 1206ft 2 .
2-4-0 rebuilds of Kirtley locomotives
800 class (Johnson rebuilds)
Radford (85 et seq): Johnson rebuilt the Kirtley 800 class with larger cylinders and his own style of boiler having in all three different variations of heating surfaces for the Settle-Carlisle line traffic, with its heavy Pullman car trains. The most powerful were those with an unclassified special boiler pitched 7ft 2in above rail having 1,333ft 2 of heating surface of which the 264 tubes of 1 5/8 in diameter provided 1,215ft 2 , and the firebox 118ft 2 , the shell being 6ft 2in long and 4ft lin wide outside. Larger 18in x 26in cylinders were provided and new motion and crank axles, but the original full-length double frames and 6ft 8in driving wheels were retained. A new leading axle with new axleboxes was provided, the springing being provided rather unusually by two pairs of spiral form springs mounted below the axle. Ten locomotives were rebuilt in this form to order 155: 800, 804, 805, 807, 811, 813, 814, 816, 818 and 819 (all in 1877). This followed the trial rebuilding of No. 169 in September 1876 with a B boiler carrying only 1,142ft 2 of heating surface.
The remainder were rebuilt with 18 x 24in cylinders, and also retained the original frames and motion, but with B class boilers carrying 1,233 or 1,223ft 2 of heating surface. These were rebuilt between 1876 and 1882, and were the remainder of the range 800-29; Nos 165-9 and 60-66. From 1880 onwards some of these engines were fitted up with new type Westinghouse air-brake equipment, these being Nos 800-819, 22, 60, 62-5 and 165 except 803 and 812 which, together with 829, were fitted up with the old type. Charles Rous-Marten gives details of several runs behind these locomotives in the Rly Mag. 1901, page 366 (Vol. No. not cited).
890 class (Johnson rebuilds)
From 1880 some of the 890 class of 2-4-0s were also fitted with new type Westinghouse air-brake equipment: Nos 900-903, 906 and 907 being the engines in question. Johnson later rebuilt this class with the standard P class boiler beginning with 902 in September, 1885. This was pitched 7ft 2in from rail and carried 1,244ft 2 of heating surface, except Nos 890 and 891 (1,242ft 2 ). The last to be rebuilt was 904 in December, 1889. They had new frames, with strengthening plates of the same 1in thickness attached to the inside of the main frame around the driving axleboxes, and had 6ft 8in driving and 4ft 2in leading wheels, on standard wheelbase, 18in x 24in cylinders, and screw reversmg gear.
Robert Weatherburn , when District Locomotive Superintendent at Leicester, extended the life of stored Kirtley single driving wheel locomotives by fitting them with improved sanding and this was followed by Holt’s use of compressed air from the Westinghouse braking system. See Chapter 4 of Fryer’s Single wheeler locomotives . Chapter 4: makes extensive references from Weatherburn’s articles in The Railway Magazine .
Radford records that Johnson had several of the four-wheel coupled engines, Nos 1306-11, fitted with this gear, and removed the coupling rods, running them as singles. The engines did as well on the level with the same trains, as the rest of the class, yet strangely showed up better on the gradients, there being also a considerable economy in fuel. Johnson had also been impressed by the performance of Stroudley’s single wheeler Grosvenor which had particicpated in the Newark Brake Trials, and had left a considerable reputation. The Chief Locomotive Draughtsman at this time was Billinton, who had formerly held the same position under Stroudley on the LBSCR. The foregoing circumstances all prompted Johnson into producing the first of his 4-2-2 type tender engines which were to many the essence of beauty in a locomotive, and cert.ainly among the best looking engines of the day.
Class emerged in June 1887. They had inside cylinders and steel boilers. The driving wheels were 7ft 4in in diameter, but later batches had driivng wheels of greater diameter. Adams’ bogies were fitted. From 1893, series were built using the Walter Smith type of piston valve developed on the North Eastern Railway. The initial locomotives had a grate area of 19.6 ft 2 , but this was increased to 24.5 ft 2 in the final series of ten introduced in 1899/1900. These also had high pressure (180 psi) boilers and double bogie tenders. No. 118 forms part of the National Collection: it had been preserved by the LMS. Both Summerson and Radford have much to offer.
Radford’s Chapter 9 (The Johnson Singles (1887-1900)): no single driver locomotives had been built for the Midland since 1866, although a practically new engine, No 4 had been turned out in April, 1869, being the rebuild of an earlier engine of 1861. Even some of those singles still on the books had, by 1884, been taken off the road as a result of a circular instruction forbidding their use owing to the many delays to trains being caused by the single driving wheels slipping. One of these engines was stationed at Leicester, and was used solely for supplying steam. to stationary engines at pumping stations whilst their boilers were under repair, the engines being sheeted over when not in use to hide their shame.
At this time Robert Weatherburn was the District Locomotive Superintendent at Leicester, and he records that he never passed the laid-up engine without the strong desire to make use of it. Eventually the temptation was too great. He had the tarpaulin cover removed and, after examination of springs and tyres, gave instruction for the driving springs, both inside and out, to be strengthened by the addition of an extra plate. The sand-boxes were brought nearer to the wheels and two pipes trained as closely as possible to the tyres to ensure that the sand was delivered onto the rail and not blown away. These alterations were completed the day before Leicester Fair and Weatherburn changed the engines of one train at Leicester, putting the single on to work south to London. He records that it did well, and he kept it at work for some months, almost forgetting Johnson’s instruction concerning these singles, until one day he was summoned to Derby and there met by Billinton who told him his violation of the instruction had been known for some time, but that his alterations were considered successful, particularly the running up Barden Hill and stopping and starting at difficult places. Billinton concluded by saying that Johnson had almost decided on the use of new single wheelers for the southern section.
Upon being ushered into Johnson’s presence Weatherburn was admonished on the value of circular instructions, then made to recount exactly the details of his alterations, loads, etc. Johnson estimated the driving axle load to be 17 tons, and when weighed it proved to be 17 tons 3cwt. It was decided to continue using the locomotive in question, and a somewhat emboldened Weatherburn strongly advised the use of a leading bogie as part of the new design.
Shortly after this event with the Leicester single-wheeler another development was to take place which further strengthened the argument for single-wheelers, this being the introduction of compressed air sanding gear which delivered a jet of air and sand directly at the space between tyre and rail instead of by means of the former gravity fed system, the value of which was extremely suspect and varied considerably with the prevailing conditions. This new air-sanding owed its origin to Francis Holt, at that time the Works Manager at Derby, and he had the system fitted to several engines, working on the heavily graded Settle-Carlisle line in 1886, the air being supplied from the Westinghouse braking system fitted to these locomotives. But the Westinghouse Company raised objections to this use of air from their system, claiming rightly that it could upset the brake, so Holt modified his device and used steam from the boiler instead of air. This system had a marked effect on the whole of British locomotive policy, and was ultimately commercially marketed by Gresham & Craven. Johnson had several of the four-wheel coupled engines, Nos 1306-11, fitted with this gear, and removed the coupling rods, running them as singles. The engines did quite as well on the level with the same trains, as the rest of the class, yet strangely showed up better on the gradients, there being also a considerable economy in fuel.
Johnson had also been impressed by the performance of Stroudley’s single wheeler Grosvenor which had competed at the Newark Brake Trials, some few years previously and had, by its design and performance on that occasion, left a considerable reputation behind it. It must also be remembered that the Chief Locomotive Draughtsman at this time was Billinton, who had formerly held the same position under Stroudley on the LBSCR.
The foregoing circumstances all prompted Johnson into producing the first of his 4-2-2 type tender engines which were to many the essence of beauty in a locomotive, and certainly among the best looking engines of the day. First to be built was No 25 in June, 1887 and over the next 14 years a total of 95 locomotives of this type were produced, all by the Derby Works.
It should be mentioned here that Johnson was not a man easily converted to revolutionary ideas but rather waited patiently for the stage of co-operation and development to arrive when he could be ensured of success. This was particularly the case with steam brakes, steam and automatic vacuum brake combined and later the train-heating apparatus, all successfully introduced during his term of office, as were the famous compounds to be described later.
95 locomotives built to five designs: driving wheels got larger with time: Summerson identifies:
Class 25 1887-1890: 7ft 4in driving wheels
Class 1853: 1889-1893: 7ft 6in driving wheels
Class 179: 1893-1896: 7ft 6in driving wheels
Class 115: 1893-1896: 7ft 9in driving wheels
Class 2601: 1899-1900: 7ft 9½in driving wheels
Radford noted the order as below:
|Order No.||Running Nos/||Years built||Driving wheel||Cylinders||Valves||Grate area||Boiler type|
|655||25-9||1887||7ft 4in||18 x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2||D (all steel)|
|745||30-2||1888||7ft 4in||18 x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|745||1853, 34||1889||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|796||1854-7, 37||1889||7ft 4in||18 x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|809||1858-62||1889-90||7ft 4in||18 x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|809||1863-7||1889-90||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|935||1868-72||1891||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|998||8, 122, 145, 20, 24, 33, 35-6, 38-9||1892||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|1080||4, 16-17, 94, 97, 100, 129, 133||1892||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|1094||149, 170-8||1893||7ft 6in||18½ x 26 in||slide||19.6ft 2|
|1124||179-83||1893||7ft 6in||19 x 26 in||piston||19.6ft 2|
|1454||75-7, 79, 88||1896||7ft 6in||19 x 26 in||piston||19.5ft 2|
|1474||115-19||1896-7||7ft 9in||19½ x 26 in||piston||21.3ft 2||E class|
|1659||120-1, 123-8, 130-1||1899||7ft 9in||19½ x 26 in||piston||21.3ft 2||E class|
|1926||2601-5, 19-23||1899-1900||7ft 9½in||19½ x 26 in||piston||24.5ft 2||F class|
The Singles incorporated a number of key developments. The first five built to O/655 were Nos 25-9, turned out between June and August, 1887. The single pair of driving wheels were 7ft 4in diameter, the largest yet used on main line locomotives on the Midland. The D class steel boiler, set at 160psi, had a total heating surface of 1,240.6ft 2 of which the tubes, 242 of 1 5/8 in outside diameter and 2 of 1½in outside diameter, provided 1,123.6ft 2 and the firebox 117ft 2 . Twin Salter safety valves were provided on the dome with a lock-up safety valve over the firebox. Screw reverse was provided on the right-hand (driving) side. The new steam sanding device was applied in front of the driving wheels. They had deep double-frames. The driving axle had both inside and outside bearings, the outside springs being underhung and the inside springs overhung whilst the bogie axles had only inside bearings and the trailing wheel outside bearings only with overhung leaf springs. Working weights were: bogie 14 tons 7cwt, driving 18.tons 10cwt, trailing 10 tons 12cwt,. They were the first Midland engines to have a drumhead smokebox flush with the boiler barrel. Six-wheeled tenders of 3,250gal capacity and carrying 3 tons of coal were provided to O/656. Nos 25-7 were allocated to Kentish Town and 28 and 29 to Nottingham initially, although they too went to London the following year. These locomotives were, to the surprise of some, a huge success and Johnson embarked on a long building programme which extended right up to 1900. Three of the class, Nos 25, 28 and 29 later had their cylinders bored out to 18½in diameter. They were broken up between 1919 and 1928, No 25 being the last to go in July of that year.
The next batch to O/745 were split up into Nos 30-32 having 7ft 4in diameter driving wheels and being identical to Nos 25-9 as built, and Nos 1853 and 34 with 7ft 6in diameter driving wheels and 4ft 4in diameter trailing wheels, and having larger 18½ x 26in cylinders giving somewhat greater power. These adjustments in size were made as a result of experience gained with the first batch in service, and Nos 30-32 went to Nottingham, whilst the other two were sent to London. No 1853 was sent to the Paris International Exhibition of 1889 along with one of Clayton’s carriages a “soft third-class”, twelve-wheeled, pressed-steel bogie composite coach with toilet facilities as provided for the first class passengers. The French judges were somewhat staggered by this grandeur and awarded the coach the Grand Prix and Johnson’s locomotive a gold medal. Nos 1853 and 34 were among the first Midland engines to have all wheels made of Siemens Martin cast steel, a change which was continued on some other engines of the type and later became standard practice. Hitherto wheels had been of wrought iron, forged . throughout, the spokes being forged in a solid “T” head and welded at the centre of each spoke. Balance weights were also forged solid in the rim of aU driving wheels.
From O/1474 onwards the distance between the driving wheel and bogie centre line was increased to 10ft 2½in to accommodate the E class boiler with longer barrel, and the boiler pressure was raised to 170psi for O/1474 and O/1659, and further increased to 180psi for O/1926, the engines for which were fitted with double bogie 4,000gal tenders having coal capacity of 5 tons and weighing 50 tons 13cwt 3qtr in working order. These were for the longer non-stop runs, for there were as yet no water troughs on the Midland. A further boiler change to F class was made for O/1926 which also necessitated increasing the distance between driving and trailing wheels to 9ft 9in to allow for the 8ft long firebox. Another modification was in the outside driving-wheel springs which were changed from plate to twin-spiral springs for engines built to O/935 and onwards.
There were also some variations in the boilers provided, a change being made for the last four engines of O/998 which had D class boilers having 1,223sq ft of heating surface, and this type was used until O/1454 which had the same type boiler with 1,205sq ft heiting surface. No further D class boilers were fitted to the singles beyond this, E class boilers set at I70psi and having 1,233sq ft heating surface being fitted to orders 1474 and 1659, and F class boilers having 1,217sq ft of heating surface were used for O/1926, set at 180psi.
One locomotive of the last order No 2601 was named Princess of Wales and represented the Midland Railway Company at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 where it stood alongside Webb’s compound La France and Claud Hamilton representing the Great Eastern Company, but nevertheless it was the Midland engine which was awarded the Grand Prix. The name was taken off for a short period but restored in 1914 again, and was painted around the rim of the driving wheel splasher. When the engine was scrapped in November, 1921, the driving wheels were mounted on a pedestal near the offices in Derby Works yard where they remained until the 1930s.
The allocation of Nos 25-9 has already been mentioned, and the remainder were allocated between Nottingham, London, Leeds, Leicester and Liverpool, with only a few odd ones at Derby. In 1892 it was decided to try the class on the difficult Derby-Bristol road and the great number of engines built in that year went either to Bristol or Birmingham. As a whole the class gave excellent results, being among the most economical ever turned out from the Derby Works, consuming between 20 and 21 lb of the local coal per mile with their usual average load of 115 tons. The drivers were thrilled with them and they were great favourites, becoming nicknamed “spinners” on account of the odd spasm of slipping which they suffered from when starting with heavy trains; yet once in motion they swept along with seemingly effortless ease, there being of course no visible moving parts of the motion, just the large whirling wheels. They were subsequently replaced on the best trains by heavier, more powerful coupled engines of later design, but came into their own again during the 1912 coal strike when, on account of their economy, they were once again put to work on some of the fastest trains for a brief period. They were re-numbered in 1907 as Nos 600-94 in order of building, and were one of the few classes not to undergo a metamorphosis under Deeley, although they escaped by only a narrow margin, as will be recounted later in our story.
One of the singles was however somewhat modified under Deeley by having one of his design of cab fitted. This was No 600 which was so fitted in 1917 under O/5001 which also provided for the addition of vacuum controller gear for working the General Superintendent’s service saloon. The saloon itself was most interesting, having been converted from the second of two steam rail motors mentioned later in the book as having been constructed to O/2741 for working the Heysham branch. This was numbered 2234 in the coaching stock, and retained this number after conversion. It was later to be renumbered DM45010 and is fortunately still in existence in private ownership which has secured its preservation at least for the time being.
The singles were withdrawn between 1919 and 1928, beginning with Nos 601 (ex-26) and 696 (2602) which was probably the first to actually be withdrawn since the boiler is shown as being broken up in December, 1916, and no replacement shown. Last to go was 600, mentioned above, which was taken out of service in July, 1928, but fortunately one, 673 built as No 118, was put to one side for possible preservation when withdrawn in July, 1928, and was later restored to Midland crimson lake livery as 118, being placed in the Work’s Museum in January, 1931.
Fryer quotes serties of articles by J.F. Vicery in Rly Mag ., 1910, January to March, C.J. Allen in Rly Mag ., 1916 January and Rous-Marten in The Engineer (24 June 1904)
Retrospective, appreciative & critical
Braithwaite, Jack. The Johnson bogie singles. Midland Record (16), 5-13.
With additional notes by Bob Essery
Braithwaite, Jack. Locomotive beauty: a personal viewpoint. Midland Record (19), 52-9.
Had an especial admiration for the 4-2-2 type and notes the influence of Charles Beyer on British locomotive aesthetics.
Fryer, Charles. Single wheeler locomotives. 1993. Chapter 5.
Sub-titled the Midland ‘spinners’. This Chapter is less rich in its extracts from sources, such as Engineering , than some of the other chapters in this work.
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 6 Four famous 4-2-2 singles.
The design has to take its place alongside other singles in the Nock galaxy
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 5
The ‘Princesses’, with 24 ft 2 grate areas (more than most contemporary 4-4-0s), were potentially powerful engines although the starting pull was limited to about a quarter of the adhesion weight and therefore to about 10,000lb. With a nominal tractive effort of 17,000lb they needed a severely restricted regulator-opening to start in full gear without slipping, but once well under way they could develop their full power at any speed higher than about 35mph. On most of the Midland main lines this was no hardship, but on the steeper ones where the engine might be forced down to slogging at much below 35mph, sanding might be necessary to prohibit slipping, even on dry rails. But sanding gear did not always work as it should because some sorts of sand are far more reluctant than others to flow through pipes, and a combination of greasy rails, adverse gradient and inadequate sanding could stop a single more effectively than a coupled engine. Sand that flows intermittently and unequally on the two rails can impose a sudden obstruction to rapidly spinning wheels and this was commonly held to be a possible cause of breakage of crank-axles.
In contributing to a discussion on a technical paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1933, Sir Henry Fowler mentioned that the crank-axles of the Johnson singles had been a continuous source of trouble. Cracks developed and extended so commonly that no axle lasted longer than eight years. It is not to be assumed that this short life was in any way associated with stresses set up when slipping wheels ran onto sanded rails as there were other origins of undue stress. It has been suggested that bending moment due to flange-pressure on the large driving wheels could induce stresses high enough to start cracks in the crank-axle and to propagate them.
As all singles used to do most of their work in an effortlessly seeming manner (because they were not in fact making much effort), it is natural to believe that they did not burn much coal and figures in the region of 20lb per mile have been quoted for the Midland engines. No such figure can show whether the engine was notably economical or not; to obtain any information on that point it would be necessary also to know about routes, speeds and weights of trains. In the Railway Magazine for February 1910 are recorded figures derived from tests on Midland singles of the 115 and 2601 classes, and they quote 2.91b of coal per indicated horsepower hour for both classes. (This is closely comparable with contemporary results from North Eastern Class R 4-4-0s.) The figures correspond to about 450 ihp for the smaller engine and 550 ihp for the larger one and to 21.3 and 23.0 ihp per square foot of grate area, the train weights being 123 and 160 tons respectively and the average speeds about 54 and 52mph.
The classic high-power run of a Midland single was that of No 125 in taking 325 tons from Kettering to Nottingham, 51½ miles, at a start-to-stop average of 51.3mph. This corresponds to a mean drawbar horsepower of about 25 per square foot of grate area and this is not remarkably high even for a wet steam engine. The greatest difficulty on the run was that of getting a total mass of over 400 tons really going up the initial gradient of 1 in 132. The resistance due to weight alone is over 3 tons and, with adhesion weight of 18½ tons limiting the frictional force at the treads of the driving wheels to a maximum of about 4½ tons, there was not much margin left to cover the frictional resistances in the wheels and axles of engine, tender and train. Although acceleration must have been low on the subsequent rise of 2 miles at 1 in 160 the first 5 miles from Kettering were covered in 11 minutes, and from there to the stop at Nottingham, with more downhill than up, the average was 56½ mile/h.
Fox Walker locomotives for Gloucester Docks: 1878.
Fox Walker (1878) 0-6-0ST No. 2067A inside Burton-on-Trent engine shed in 1906. Rly Arch. ,2007 (16), 51 lower. See also letter from Bill Aves (Issue 17 page 38) concerning this locomotive, Aves cites Summerson’s Midland Railway locomotives Vol. 3 pp. 189-90 which states that MR purchased two Fox Walker 0-6-0STs: original running numbers 1428/9, Works Numbers 377 and 384 in 1879 for dock shunting at Gloucester. No. 1428 became 1428A in 1890 and 2067A in 1891 and remained in service until 1906.
In the years 1874-6 (Radford p. 87 et seq ) Neilson and the Vulcan Foundry supplied forty 0-6-0 tanks of a new type that were to become a basic standard for almost 30 years. These were Nos 1102-26 (Neilson) and 1127-41 (Vulcan) all with A class boilers, and having inside frames only, 17in x 24in cylinders and six driving wheels of 4ft 6in diameter on a wheelbase of 7ft 4in + 7ft 8in. The round-topped boiler, pressed to 140psi carried a total heating surface of 1,120ft 2 comprising tubes 1,030 and firebox 90ft 2 respectively. The tubes were 220 in number and 1¾in in diameter, and the side tanks carried 900gal of water and the bunkers 24cwt of coal, the working weights being as follows: leading 12 tons 11cwt 3qtr, driving 12 tons 19cwt 3qtr, trailing 13 tons 14cwt .2qtr making a total of 39 tons 6cwt (with full tanks and 1 ton of coal). The Neilson’s cost £2,550 each and the Vulcan’s £2,135 for the first five and £2,185 for the remainder . Summerson calls these the 1102 class.
They had enclosed cabs as built and proved to be very useful little locomotives. Two hundred and eighty of this general type were to be built up to 1902. The first to emerge from Derby was No 1377, of the range 1377-86, in May, 1878 followed by the rest of the order, 204, the same year. There was a difference In the boilers of these however for they had only 213 tubes of 1¾in diameter (1,024ft 2 ) plus 91 ft 2 firebox heating surface, giving a slightly smaller heating surface of 1,115ft 2 which was used on the subsequent orders. They cost £1,691. 14s each. Another order, 218, for a further 20 locomotives, Nos 1387-96 and 1347-56 was begun the same year and completed by 1879 followed by O/239 for a further ten, Nos 220, 221 and 1420-27, also built in 1879.
More orders followed as listed below:
|Order||Locomotive Nos||Year built||Cost|
|O/262||1410-19||1880||£1,531. 11s 6d|
|O/340||1552-61||1882||£1,514. 17s 3d|
|O/414||210-12, 215, 216, 218, 219, 1397-9||1883|
|O/496||1677-86, 1090-92, 1094, 1095||1884|
There was gap of four years here between O/499 and the next order for this type, and the remainder will be referred to later. Variations included: the last five locomotives of O/414, (Nos 218, 219 and 1397-9), were built with all-over cabs and vacuum-brake gear for use on the Keighley and Worth Valley line. The remainder had half cabs, and Nos 1552-61 had cut-down half-cabs and shortened chimneys (11ft 5½in top to rail) and domes, and were used on London branches. Other minor variations are covered in an article by G.H. Daventry in the SLS Journal for October 1965, with supplementary notes in the May and July 1966 issues. These locomotives were used not only on goods workings, but also on passenger trains on some secondary routes, especially in the Swansea area, and the class were allocated over the whole Midland system.
Class A (1102): 1874-6
Originally intended for the steeply graded lines in South Wales. First batch supplied by Neilson, second by Vulcan Foundry.
James, Fred and Essery, Bob. The Midland Railway ‘A’ class 0-6-0 tank enginers. Midland Record , (21), 6-24.
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 8
1377 Class and N class : 1878-1892
Majority built at Derby: several managed to remain in service under British Railways virtually until the end of steam where (along with some former GWR 0-6-0PTs) they were a source of amusement to some enthusiasts for having “half-cabs” (as distinct from what the Midland called “double cabs”)> According to Summerson 1 a total of 225 were constructed. They were fitted with A type boilers’..
Summerson, Stephen Midland Railway locomotives. Volume 3. The Johnson classes. Part 1. The slim boiler passenger tender engines, passenger and goods tank engines . Chapter 9.